Sunday, July 23, 2017

Research-Influenced Learning Spaces

We need to move away from classroom design that is “Pinterest pretty” and use research/design thinking to guide the work.” – Eric Sheninger and Tom Murray

When Tom Murray and I set out to write Learning Transformed our goal was to connect as much research as possible to our ideas and statements as well as the amazing work taking place in schools, known in the book as Innovative Practices in Action (IPA’s). Research should be used to inform as well as influence the actions we take to implement sustainable change at scale.  It is also a great way to move those who are resistant to change to embrace new ideas. Below is an adapted section of Chapter 4 from our book that looks as research that can influence learning space design in classrooms and schools.

Image credit: http://www.naturalinteriors.com/wp-content/uploads/Steelcase-2.jpg

One area where we found a growing body of research was learning space design. In studying various pieces of literature on the effect of design, Barrett and Zhang began with the understanding that a “bright, warm, quiet, safe, clean, comfortable, and healthy environment is an important component of successful teaching and learning” (p. 2). Their research suggested direct connections between the learning space and sensory stimuli among students. The evidence of such connections came from the medical understanding of how human sensory perception affects cognitive calculations. As such, Barrett and Zang (2009) identify three key design principles:

  1. Naturalness: Hardwired into our brains, humans have the basic need for light, air, and safety. In this area, the impact of lighting, sound, temperature, and air quality are prevalent.
  2. Individualization: As individuals, each of our brains is uniquely organized and, we perceive the world in different ways. Because of this, different people respond to environmental stimuli in various ways. Therefore, the opportunity for some level of choice affects success.
  3. Appropriate Level of Stimulation: The learning space can offer the “silent curriculum” that affects student engagement levels. When designing the space, it’s important for educators not to overstimulate and thus detract students’ ability to focus but to provide enough stimuli to enhance the learning experience. 

Supporting this notion, a research study out of the University of Salford Manchester (UK), followed 3,766 students in 153 elementary classrooms from 27 different schools over a three-year period, analyzing classroom design elements along the way. The report indicates clear evidence that “well-designed primary schools boost children’s academic performance in reading, writing, and math” (Barrett, Zhang, Davies, & Barrett, 2015, p. 3). The study found a 16 percent variation in learning progress due to the physical characteristics of the classroom. Additionally, the study indicated that whole-school factors (e.g., size, play facilities, hallways) do not nearly have the level of impact as the individual classroom.

School leaders will often write off the notion of redesigning learning spaces due to financial constraints. However, research indicates that schools don’t need to spend vast amounts of money to make instructional improvements. In fact, changes can be made that have little to no cost yet make a significant difference. Examples include altering the classroom layout, designing classroom displays differently, and choosing new wall colors (Barrett et al., 2015). These research-based factors are minimal financial commitments that can help boost student outcomes. 

The effect of learning spaces on various behaviors—territoriality, crowding, situational and personal space—has been the focus of some sociological and environment behavioral research. The consensus of this research is that the space itself has physical, social, and psychological effects. One study measured the impact of classroom design on 12 active learning practices, including collaboration, focus, opportunity to engage, physical movement, and stimulation (Scott-Webber, Strickland, & Kapitula, 2014). The research indicated that intentionally designing spaces provides for more effective teaching and learning. In this particular study, all of the major findings supported a highly positive and statistically significant effect of active learning classrooms on student engagement. 

In a research study on the link between standing desks and academic engagement, researchers observed nearly 300 children in 2nd through 4th grade over the course of a school year (Dornhecker, Blake, Benden, Zhao, & Wendel, 2015). The study found that students who used standing desks, more formally known as stand-biased desks, exhibited higher rates of engagement in the classroom than did their counterparts seated in traditional desks. Standing desks are raised desks that have stools nearby, enabling students to choose whether to sit or stand during class. The initial studies showed 12 percent greater on-task engagement in classrooms with standing desks, which equated to an extra seven minutes per hour, on average, of engaged instruction time. 

There’s little disagreement that creating flexible spaces for physical activity positively supports student learning outcomes. However, it’s important to note that it’s not simply the physical layout of the room that affects achievement. One particular study investigated whether classroom displays that were irrelevant to ongoing instruction could affect students’ ability to maintain focused attention during instruction and learn the lesson content. Researchers placed kindergarten children in a controlled classroom space for six introductory science lessons, and then they experimentally manipulated the visual environment in the room. The findings indicated that the students were more distracted when the walls were highly decorated and, in turn, spent more time off task. In these environments, students demonstrated smaller learning gains than in cases where the decorations were removed (Fisher, Godwin, & Seltman, 2014).

In addition to the physical and visual makeup of the learning space, a building’s structural facilities profoundly influence learning. Extraneous noise, inadequate lighting, low air quality, and deficient heating in the learning space are significantly related to lower levels of student achievement (Cheryan, Ziegler, Plaut, & Meltzoff, 2014). Understanding how the learning space itself can affect the way students learn is key. Part of the issue facing school leaders today is that quite often the decision about learning space design is made by those without recent (or any) experience teaching or by those with little knowledge of classroom design. If learning is going to be transformed, then the spaces in which that learning takes place must also be transformed. Design can empower learning in amazing ways.

Today’s educational paradigm is no longer one of knowledge transfer but one of knowledge creation and curation. The “cells and bells” model has been prevalent for more than a century, but it is no longer relevant for today’s learners. As educators work to shift to instructional pedagogies that are relational, authentic, dynamic, and—at times—chaotic in their schools, learning spaces must be reevaluated and adapted as necessary. Pedagogical innovation requires an innovation in the space where learning takes place. Simply put, if the space doesn’t match the desired learning pedagogy, then it will hinder student learning outcomes.

Fore more research-influenced ideas and strategies to transform education grab a copy of Learning Transformed. There is also a free ASCD study guide aligned to the book that can be accessed HERE.



Cited Sources


Barrett, P., & Zhang, Y. (2009). Optimal learning spaces: Design implications for primary schools.
Salford, UK: Design and Print Group.

Barrett, P., Zhang, Y., Davies, F., & Barrett, L. (2015). Clever classrooms: Summary findings
of the HEAD Project (Holistic Evidence and Design). Salford, UK: University of Salford,
Manchester.

Barrett, P., Zhang, Y., Moffat, J., & Kobbacy, K. (2013). A holistic, multi-level analysis
identifying the impact of classroom design on pupils’ learning. Building and Environment, 59, 678–689.

Cheryan, S., Ziegler, S., Plaut V., & Meltzoff, A. (2014). Designing classrooms to maximize
student achievement. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1(1), 4–12.

Dornhecker, M., Blake, J., Benden, M., Zhao, H., & Wendel, M. (2015). The effect of standbiased
desks on academic engagement: An exploratory study. International Journal of Health Promotion and Education, 53(5), 271–280.

Fisher, A., Godwin, K., & Seltman, H. (2014). Visual environment, attention allocation, and
learning in young children: When too much of a good thing may be bad. Psychological
Science, 25(7), 1362–1370.

Scott-Webber, L., Strickland, A., & Kapitula, L. (2014). How classroom design affects student
engagement. Steelcase Education.

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Sunday, July 16, 2017

Authenticity in Leadership

Leading change in any organization is a difficult task.  In many cultures the status quo is so entrenched that shifting mindsets and behaviors can be daunting.  Clearly establishing the why is a natural starting point and can help to propel the change effort at hand.  The how and finally the what should then follow this. Even when leaders tackle issues and problems using this recipe, other challenges and obstacles frequently rear their ugly head.  The research that Tom Murray and I share in Learning Transformed can help guide anyone, regardless of his or her position, to move change efforts forward that sustain over time no matter what issue might arise.  The best LEADERS:

  • Learn
  • Empower
  • Adapt
  • Delegate
  • Engage (face-to-face and digitally)
  • Reflect
  • Serve

In many cases, buy-in is a common strategy used to implement and sustain change. Looking for buy-in might serve as a temporary fix, but sustainable change is driven by embracement. People need to understand the inherent value that comes with them being asked to change their practice or thinking. When it comes to change, most people are naturally against it as our brains are wired to keep us safe. The only group of people who really love change all the time are wet babies (the power of a dry diaper has a magical effect).  Our practices and actions must make it more palatable and doable. Modeling, providing support, listening, and alignment to research are sound strategies that many leaders consistently utilize. Sustaining any effort relies on substance in the form of evidence of improved outcomes and efficacy. 


Image credit: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/4-ways-own-cape-authentic-leadership-jill-sweiven

With the many challenges that leaders face when it comes to change, what overreaching strategies can be utilized to make leading it successful?  The answer lies in authenticity.  Mark Bilton recently penned a piece on this topic. In his article he states the following:


"The fast-paced, dynamic world of rapid change that used to be confined to distressed organizations is now everyone’s world. We are in a marketplace changing at digital speed. With so much disruption, new generations and a hyper-connected world where information is a commodity, the leadership paradigm has to shift. The industrial revolution model of command and control leadership is no longer effective."

Authentic leaders embrace digital to lead successful change efforts.  He goes on to state:


"To enable an organization to thrive today, leaders have to embrace an authentic leadership style. It promotes an engaged, flexible and innovative environment, one able to match the pace of change we now face."

Digital leadership is authentic in nature.  It is about leveraging digital tools and spaces to develop relationships, promote transparency, showcase success, openly reflect, and share powerful stories. By communicating the why, how, and what, leaders can be proactive in creating a narrative rich in evidence, connected to research, and clearly showing efficacy. Authentic leaders understand the power of engaging face-to-face, but are also constantly working to create a new playing field by thinking forward. That’s where the digital piece comes into play.

Mark Bilton goes on in his article to describe the five pillars of authentic leadership: collaboration, vision, empathy, groundedness, and ethics.  Each is a defining characteristic that embodies great leadership. In a digital world it is difficult to be authentic if you are not leveraging digital strategies to become better at what you do. Leaders can now collaborate locally and globally without the constraints of time and space. A vision for change, as well as the actions that follow, can be shared across various channels to build greater embracement. By engaging in digital spaces, leaders can develop a greater sense of empathy by listening to the concerns and challenges of others and then offering support. Digital spaces can provide a needed break from the daily ups and downs of the job while also providing a platform to reflect. Finally, ethical behavior can be put on display highlighting appropriate and professional use. This type of modeling can go a long way to empowering others to not just change, but to become digital leaders themselves.

Be true to yourself and others. When you fail (and you will), showcasing your vulnerable side will only help to strengthen the bonds with those you work with. Being human is more important that being right all the time. You will never have all the answers or solutions needed to move large change efforts forward. Look to others to find answers to questions and help you achieve your change goals.  Continue to improve in ways that push you outside your comfort zone. With authenticity on your side finding success will be much easier.

Sunday, July 9, 2017

Own What You See

As a former science teacher I was always a fan of the scientific method.  It was a great process for students to actually do science in order to learn by designing an experiment to deeply explore observations and develop/answer questions.  The process itself was guided by inquiry, problem solving, and reflection. I fondly remember developing and testing out numerous hypotheses in the many science courses I took in high school and college. This type of learning was messy, unpredictable, and challenging, but it was also fun.  I think I refuted more hypotheses then validated, but the learning experience kept driving me to pursue eventual degrees and a teaching certificate in the sciences. 

Even though my science teaching days are long behind me, the scientific method has always stuck with me, as there are direct applications to leadership. Leaders must constantly make observations and own what they see. In the context of education, leaders must challenge the status quo if observations lead to a conclusion that a business as usual model is prevalent.  What is seen, or not, can be a powerful tool to develop critical questions that can drive needed change or improvement. 


This is extremely important regarding instruction.  As a leader do you really know or have a good handle on what is happening in your classrooms daily? Does your school or district work better for kids or adults? How do you know if technology and innovative practices are actually improving learner outcomes? Owning what you see requires improving observation and evaluation practices. The first step is to get into classrooms more to not only make observations, but to also begin collecting evidence that either validates or refutes the claims of improvement that are now heard more and more.  Getting into classrooms both formally and informally can provide a much-needed critical lens to support professional practice while also building powerful relationships in the process.

Owning what you see doesn’t just have to come from being physically present to make observations. Developing strategies to ensure a return on instruction through the collection of standards-aligned artifacts (lesson plans, projects, student work) and portfolios can clearly illustrate whether changes to professional practice are occurring or not.  Making observations and looking at evidence (or lack thereof) can lead to more questions that can drive change. This is a good start, but ultimately owning what you see requires action that results in improved outcomes. The more we can quantify this through multiple measures the better our chances are of initiating sustainable change that improves learning for all.

When you look around your building(s) or classrooms what do you see?

Sunday, July 2, 2017

Actions Change Things

Conferences are a hallmark of the summer season. Thousands of educators attend events around the United States to connect, learn, and grow.  For the past three years I have had the honor of attending and participating in the Model Schools Conference.  You can check out a video of my opening mini-keynote HERE. The goal of this event is to set the stage with the latest innovative practices improving school and to begin to lay the foundation for districts and schools to begin planning long-term, job-embedded professional growth opportunities that are anything but the drive-by variety.  

What separates this conference from all others is the fact that the program is built around district and school teams who have closed achievement gaps, bridged the digital divide, and implemented innovative practices aligned to research. The model schools and districts put on a display of evidence focusing on what works to create a learning experience driven by practitioner success in the field.  It doesn’t get much better than that. 

Regardless of the conference you attend, what you do afterwards is what truly matters.  Hopefully you are exposed to new ideas, evidence-based strategies, research, and tools that will push your thinking while motivating you to move outside your comfort zone. The experience should result in the construction of new knowledge that can be used as a catalyst for change.  Reflecting on what was learned typically comes next.  This is something that I see happening at every Model Schools Conference.  As the sessions end, you can walk around the conference center and always see district and school teams gathered in rooms or common spaces reflecting on their learning while mapping out a plan for action.

What must happen next is the most critical aspect of any conference or professional growth experience – you must ACT!  It is our individual, and most importantly our collective, actions that will help us to move from an old status quo to creating a new status quo.  As you begin to develop action plans that tackle both large and small changes pause to think deeply on the process involved.  The process of change results in action, but there are many key elements that must be considered if success is the goal. Consider current obstacles and challenges as you navigate the process that culminates with action to transform learning for all students.





Talk, opinions, and assumptions might be catchy and motivating, but quickly lose their luster not if, but when a lack of substance surfaces (which it always does eventually). The same could be said about presentations that just focus on tools.  Take a critical lens to the ideas and strategies that you are exposed to. Then ask a few questions to help establish a plan for action:

  • Why will this help transform practice and improve teaching, learning, and/or leadership?
  • Is the idea or strategy scalable? 
  • How will we sustain the effort and show efficacy?
  • What research and evidence can be aligned to support the actions to be taken?

Don’t get sucked into the rabbit hole of fluff.  Always pause to reflect on anything you are exposed to whether it is from a conference, workshop, keynote, presentation, book, article, video, blog, tweet, etc.  This definitely applies to anything you read or hear from me! We have isolated pockets of excellence in schools across the world, but every kid deserves excellence. More collective, meaningful action will help to scale effective practices while preparing students for the new world of work. Let’s get to work!